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Evergreen Coffee Tree

A beverage made from the coffee tree and its fruits started a worldwide formation in the early 17th century.

As early as 1699, the Dutch are known to have planted coffee trees on the Indonesian island of Java. Then coffee followed the plantations of Ceylon and India. Later, the Dutch brought the coffee tree to South America, namely to Suriname (Dutch - Guyana). From there it spread to the tropical lands of the New World and regions that are today the world's largest coffee producers.

The coffee tree is an evergreen plant belonging to the genus Rubiaceae, with oblong, laurel-like dark green leaves, in opposite pairs. It is a noble relative of an exotic tree species called "Khin". If the coffee trees had not been cut down in the fields, their height would have reached 15 meters. The coffee tree can bloom at any time of the year due to its altitude and climate. The tree continues to bloom for months, but the flowers die a few hours after they start blooming. The coffee flowers are dazzling white. Their aroma is somewhat reminiscent of jasmine or orange blossom.

The coffee tree looks a little unusual. In the fields, you can see both flowers and ripe or unripe fruit on the same tree at the same time. Fruit color changes from immature green to yellow and light red to purple during ripening.

Coffee beans usually consist of two long (oval-shaped) nutrient-dense seeds that are flat on one side and have a small hollow in the middle. The seeds are surrounded by a silver film and surrounded by a parchment-like shell. During the ripening process, fructose is collected in the pulp of coffee berries, most of which then goes to the formation of a rounded grain shape. As a result, round grains of coffee berries, also called "pearls", are formed.

Types and varieties of coffee

Botanists distinguish about 80 varieties of the coffee tree. Two of these are particularly important - they are considered industrially important coffee varieties.


About three quarters of the world's coffee production is based on the Arabica tree (Coffee Arabica) variety. Most Arabica grows between 600 and 2000 meters above sea level. Beautifully shaped grains have an oblong shape, a smooth surface, and after washing acquire a bluish-greenish tint. In general, the flavor of Arabica is very high.


'Coffee robusta' is faster growing, more profitable and more resistant to pests and diseases than #Arabica. #Robusta grows up to 600 meters above sea level, especially in the tropical regions of Africa, India and Indonesia. The grains are almost round, the color is from light brown to grayish green. This variety, which accounts for a quarter of the world's coffee production, has a somewhat earthy and rather strong flavor.


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